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 会馆研究: 会同馆



会同馆》


作者:刘征


位于(北京宣武区)南横东街的会同四译馆(华严庵)是清代国宾馆之一。乾隆八年(1743年)至嘉庆五年(1800年)由于国内外交往频繁,内城馆舍紧张,将此地作为贡使来京下榻之地,曾接待过琉球、安南等国使臣。光绪朝《钦定大清会典事例》卷514《礼部•朝贡•馆舍》载,乾隆八年覆准,“内务府将正阳门外横街官房一所,指定三十七间半••••••作为会同馆。”到乾隆十三年,因为安定门一馆经久不住,长期缺乏修理,有碍观瞻,所以当时安南贡使到京就安置在横街馆内。当年,朝鲜使臣多在乾鱼胡同,安南、琉球使臣则主要在此居住。嘉庆五年“宣武门内瞻云坊及正阳门外南横街二处会同馆官房,向为安南、琉球等国来使馆舍。自乾隆五十五年奉旨,安南、缅甸、暹罗、南掌等国,俱内务府经理,此房遂置间旷,应交内务府收管。”至此,正阳门外南横街会同馆交回内务府。所以《光绪顺天府志》载:“南横街,井一。旧有礼部所属会同馆,今废。”
据专家考证,这里建筑很古老,大殿雄伟,为明末清初风格,街门内原有一独立影壁。其中保留着一扇木制屏风,上面的雕刻为日式风格,可能是琉球贡使住在这里时留下的古迹。侧院里还保存着一个丹凤展翅图案的荷花水缸。
琉球(今日本属地)与中国保持了长期友好而频繁的交往,安南(越南)后黎、西山两朝使臣在清中期多次派人进京,都在此留下了足迹。现存华严庵虽不是原有建筑,但具有标志性意义,是北京惟一幸存的,具有255年历史的清代国宾馆,对越南历史意义非凡,为越南各种史书所记载,更是中越、中日友好往来的重要见证。
元明清时期,北京会同馆是中国古代重要的外交场所。一是为往来贡使提供了饮食起居,二是管理各国来京贡使。三是负责接管各国贡物。四是在会同馆内开展丰富多彩的文化交流活动,促进各国之间交往。会同馆在与各民族和我国周边国的政治、经济、文化间的交流活动中起到了重要的桥梁作用,同时它对于稳定与促进我国同周边各国的睦邻友好关系也起到了十分积极的作用。清光绪二十九年(1903年),礼部会同四译馆废省。存在了千年历史的“会同馆”从此消亡。(《元明清时期北京的“国宾馆’——会同馆》 《档案大观》 2007年9月21日,总第1590期,第五版)南横街遗留的会同馆象征建筑遗迹应是中国古代外交的实物见证。
日本是与我国一衣带水的邻邦。古代琉球王国(今日本冲绳县)与中国更是来往密切,文化相通。郑和下西洋后,北京的“会同馆”常有上千外国使节滞留不归。当时,北京的会同馆和福州的琉球会馆都是专门接待琉球商人的地方。1992年,福州市为了抢救会馆文物古建,投资修复了福州琉球馆,被辟为“福州中外交流史馆”,专门陈列福州与琉球友好往来的史实。该馆原名“柔远驿”,地址在台江区,始建于明成化年间,清康熙六年重修,这所会馆专为接待琉球国朝贡使者和贸易场所,设有进贡厂,又称“琉球馆”,其性质属于驻外使馆。(《福州市政府的会馆保护意识》 汤锦程 中国会馆网)中外学者经常来此参观考察,产生了不小的旅游经济效益和社会效益。上世纪九十年代,中国第一历史档案馆曾出版过大部头的《清代中琉关系档案》,形成中日交流的系统资料。北京现存的会同馆标志建筑就更应注意保护利用,使之成为中日友好交往的又一实物史料,发挥其现实作用。
越南与我国山水相连,从古至今已有2000多年的交往历史。越南自古就受到中国传统文化的深刻影响,比朝鲜更为突出,在世界上实属罕见。
会同馆是清代乾隆年间由一座明代寺庙改建而成的(嘉庆年间又恢复为寺庙华严庵),有四进院落,主要用于接待琉球和安南(越南)来京的使臣,前些年为专家考证无误。明清时代的北京比起隋唐长安确实日渐封闭,但仍不失为东方的国际交流中心。当时,兴建了不少接待外宾使节的会同馆,随着时间的流逝,据现有资料显示,位于东单三条的兵部会同馆、明会同北馆;东交民巷的会同四译馆、清会同四译馆、高丽馆等都已不存在了。(《东华图志》上册 第923页)南横街的这处就显得弥足珍贵。虽然在东交民巷地区遗留下许多使馆建筑,但都是近代的,又是中国屈辱的见证。这里则是北京古代外交建筑惟一存留的标记,更是中国“康乾盛世”的象征。比起近代文物遗存,北京中越古代交往的旧址极为罕见,应当重点保护。

                                      
                                    2008年3月2日


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2008-03-31 17:33:00
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