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湘鄂西革命根据地货币史况


作者:程康
   
    1928年,贺龙、周逸群、邓中夏、段德昌、贺锦斋等领导人在开创湘鄂边根据地;1930年,又开创了洪湖根据地,并将湘鄂边、洪湖两个根据地联成一片,形成了以洪湖为中心的“湘鄂西革命根据地”,并成立了中共中央湘鄂西分局、中共湘鄂西省委、省苏、省军委、省农民银行等机关,因上述各机关均在瞿家湾,所以瞿家湾地区就成为根据地的政治中心。为了巩固红色政权,冲破国民党反动派的经济封锁,根据地成立了自己的银行,并发行了银、铜、纸各式货币。
    1930年10月,为了解决好金融领域的问题,湘鄂西苏区第二次工农兵贫民代表大会及时颁布了《土地革命法令》和《保护工农法令》。并明确规定:“取消一切高利贷。”、“没收外国的一切资本、企业、交通机关和银行,由国家经营管理。”、“政府设立农民银行,办理储蓄借贷、统一币制。”各级苏维埃坚决贯彻执行了这一决议,明令取消了一切高利贷,并建立了各级苏维埃银行,巩固了红色根据地,发挥了苏区银行是苏维埃的经济武力的作用。
一 鄂西农民银行
    1930年4月,为了发展苏区经济、巩固政权,冲破反动派的经济封锁、造福于人民,在湖北省石首调弦成立了“鄂西农民银行”,行长戴朴天。同年10月,发行了信用券,信用券分一角、二角、五角、一元四种。鄂西农民银行发行的壹元信用券幅15公分×6.5公分,横式、正面为水红色,反面为绿色,上方写有“鄂西农民银行”字样(右读),中间是椭园形天坛图案,图案两边均直式写有“壹元”字样,下方中央写有“此券OO通用随时照兑”(右读),两旁均有一个“武”字,左方直式写有年号“一九三0年×月”,反面左右两旁写有标语:“打倒帝国主义!消灭军阀混战!武装保护苏联!扫除封建势力”(右读),中写有“鄂西农民银行信用券条例”:一、本行为冲破敌人的经济封锁活动,苏区金融发展工农商业特发行信用券;二、本券分一角、两角、五角、一元四种;三、本券以政府税收、富农持捐及累进税为担保品;四、本券与现洋有同等之价值,凡属政府机关、民众团体及苏区的人民一概通用;五、本行办理进兑事业;六、本行办理低利借贷;七、本券可完纳富农持捐及累进税;八、本行在各县设有分行,各区设有兑换所,持有本券者可随时地前往兑现;九、白色区域如愿意使用本券,尤所欢迎来苏区兑现,各级政府当负护送的责任(直式右读)。中间加盖红色大印“鄂西农民银行”。从条例中可以看到,当时苏区发行信用券并不是空对空,而是采取了一些有力的措施,提高了苏区信用券的信誉。
    1931年春,鄂西农民银行又发行了一套纸币,主要流通于洪湖地区。纸币分为壹元、两角、壹角,这里只着重介绍贰角钞票。此种钞票为横式,反面是兰色,正面是水红色,正面上方写有“鄂西农民银行”字样(右读),中间图案为天坛,图案两旁写有“贰角”字样,下方写有年号“一九三一年造”,票面四角写有贰字,反面上方写有:“活动苏区金融完成地方暴动”(右读)。中间写有“贰角”字样,下方写有“合成一元随时兑现”(右读)。此套票标是鄂西农民银行为迁址到洪湖根据地作准备而发行的最后一批钞票。
二 中华苏维埃共和国国家银行湘鄂西特区分行
    1931年11月,鄂西农民银行随湘鄂西苏维埃政府机关一同迁往洪湖瞿家湾、周老咀。同时,鄂西农民银行改为湘鄂西特区分行,并以“中华苏维埃共和国国家银行湘鄂西特区分行”的名义开始发行纸币、铜币、银币,行长还是由戴补天兼任。这些苏币主要流通于湘鄂西根据地所属县市。
湘鄂西特区分行纸币分为壹元,票面(15公分×7公分)横式、铁灰色,票面上方从右至左写有“中华苏维埃共和国国家银行湘鄂西特区分行”字样,中间书有大写“壹元”字样,下方正中写有年号“一九三一年造”(右读),四周围有花纹。贰角票面为兰色、浅红色和深褐三种,均为横式(9.5公分×5公分),三种贰角票面正面上方均写有“中华苏维埃共和国国家银行湘鄂西特区分行”字样,下方正中写有年号“一九三一年造”字样,正反票面正中均有山、宝塔、两层楼房组成的图案,此图案绘制的是何种地方,有待于考证。兰色贰角钞票反面大不相同,上方从右至左书有“合成一元,随时兑现”字样,中间绘有镰刀、锤子、五星组成的图案,图案左右写有(直式)“冲破敌人经济封锁,实现苏维埃的政纲”字样,下方正中写有年号“一九三一年造”字样。壹角票面为横式,分灰色、灰兰色两种,规格均为9.5公分×5公分,正、反字样、图案均与浅红色贰角钞票相同。我们从票面文字上清楚的看到,当时苏区政府为取信于民,规定苏币可以直接兑换现洋,同时取缔私商发行的各种小票,并令各县及红军将原发行的各种信用券、油印纸币等价兑换成现行钞票,稳定了苏区市场,促进了经济发展。
    1932年,湘鄂西苏维埃政府为打破民党反动派对苏区的经济封锁和军事“围剿”,发行了一种园形、无穿银币。此种银币和光洋大小约同,面值为壹元,正面中央书有“壹元”字样,上园写有年号“一九三二年造”,字样成半园形、右读;下园为一行俄文,两半园接合处均为五星,反面中央为镰刀、锤子图案,周围一转书有“全世界无产阶级联合起来!”此银币做工比较精细。此外,在瞿家湾地区以湘鄂西省苏维埃政府的名义铸造、发行了一种面值为壹元的园形无郭、无穿铜币。此种铜币系土法木模锤制而成,是用两枚铜币压制而成,造型较粗糙。铜币直径约3公分,厚4毫米,重25克,铜币正面中央书有“壹分”字样,壹分两旁有交叉麦穗两根,上园写有“湘鄂西省政府造”,下园写有“青色铜币”(右读),正面中央为镰刀、锤子、五星组成的图案。上园写有“为苏维埃政权作斗争”,下园书有年号“一九三一年”(右读)。湘鄂西特区分行通过发行印制苏区自己的货币,保证为苏区内部金融市场秩序的稳定,粉碎了敌人的经济“围剿”。
三 水利借券、信用条的发行
    湘鄂西苏区的东南一带地势低洼,湖河港汊多,水涝多灾,国民党当局只刮民脂,不修堤坝。1931年,洪水泛滥,长江、汉江大堤溃口数以百计,这些险堤和溃口处能否迅速修复,直接关系到洪湖苏区人民生命财产的安全和政权的巩固。鄂西农民银行及湘鄂西省苏维埃政府为了兴修水利,领导苏区人民进行抗灾斗争,发行了“水利借券”和“信用条”。
“水利借券”面额为壹元,面色为水红色,面幅为横式,中上写有“水利借券”四字,左边从上往下注有年号“一九三一年”,右边从上往下写有“湘鄂西省苏维埃政府”,四角标有大写“壹”字,中心位置有大写“壹元”两字,上下用花边围起,左边图案为一普通农村民房,右边图案为一普通农村民房,不同的是门内伸出一只握火柱的手,左右图案均有花边,借券正面底部左右两排写有“水灾是帝国主义、国民党统治下的必然结果,只有苏维埃的胜利才能彻底整顿水利。”水利借券反面为兰色,印有水利借券条例:一、苏维埃整顿水利是要动员广大群众,为了保证土地革命的利益,而来涌跃的进行,本券是为必要的水利经费,只占整个水利经费百分之二十;二、本券是无息借券,以明年的土地税作担保,各县按照本县水利经费百分之二十的数目来省政府领取推销,后来按照所推销的数目全部收回,选交省府焚毁;三、本券推销的主要对象是苏白区域的商人和富农,其他热心水利者可按自己经济力量自愿承销;四、本券必须百分之百的用在整顿水利上面,绝对不准移作它用;五、本券无借处性质相同,能够出售,但不能购买货物。湘鄂西省苏维埃政府(此券直式右读)
    据统计当时省苏发行这种“水利借券”共80万元,为补修堤经费的不足,省委决定从各级苏维埃政府每月总收入中抽出30%用于水利建设,这些措施的实施,收到了明显的效果。
    1931年,鄂西农民银行还发行了一枚面值为两角的信用条,此信用条为直式、兰色,上写有“鄂西农民银行”(右读),中间写有“信用条贰角”字样,左边从上至下写有年号“一九三一年造”,右边从上至下写有“合成一元兑换钞洋”字样,四周围有兰色花边。
四 鄂北农民银行
    红三军八师在鄂西北苏区建立了“鄂北农民银行”,由当时的八师政治部主任胡苏黎任行长。主要发行银币,也发行过钞票。该行发行的银币面值为壹元,银币正面边上铸有“中华苏维埃共和国国币”字样,中间是列宁像或马克思像,反面铸有花边,中央由镰刀、锤子组成的图案和“壹元”字样,这种银币是红三军在房县没收了一个土豪地窖私藏的四缸“元宝”之后,请该县12位银匠用手工铸造的,3个多月内共制银元一万多枚,这些银元主要流通于鄂西北根据地。
“九一八”事件后(1932年夏),蒋介石不顾民族危机,其调动63万兵力对洪湖等苏区进行第四次反革命“围剿”,以夏曦为首的湘鄂西中央当局,却在革命内部发动大规模的所谓反“改组派”斗争,一大批党、政、军领导干部遭到诬害,党政机关陷于瘫痪;最后,红三军被迫退出根据地,洪湖苏区丢失了,中华苏维埃共和国国家银行湘鄂西特区分行也不复存在了。湘鄂西革命根据地从创办鄂西农民银行起,到洪湖根据地的丧失,历时两年零六个月,在这短短的时间里,湘鄂西苏区货币的发行、发展,为巩固红色政权,繁荣、稳定苏区政治、经济起了很重要的作用。

(作者:湖北省洪湖文学杂志社副主编)

本文发表于《东方龙》1997年1月总第十期


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Re: 下関市 フグバーガー (分数: 1)
xukaimin (xukaimin123@yahoo.com) 与 2016-10-08 10:24:50
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jlgg (分数: 1)
由 jlgg 与 2016-11-21 19:32:28
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dongdong8 (分数: 1)
由 dongdong8 与 2016-12-08 17:10:14
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Re: 湘鄂西革命根据地货币史况 (分数: 1)
由 lizhimin 与 2017-02-14 15:49:43
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meadc (分数: 1)
meadc (971790303@qq.com) 与 2017-03-03 16:26:14
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Re: 湘鄂西革命根据地货币史况 (分数: 1)
由 lizhimin 与 2017-05-11 14:14:39
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ANDADA (分数: 1)
由 andada 与 2017-06-06 16:03:58
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Re: (分数: 1)
meadc (971790303@qq.com) 与 2017-06-15 13:17:03
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KKK (分数: 1)
20170617haiying (caiyan0955@gmail.com) 与 2017-06-17 13:11:49
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michael kors factory outlet (分数: 1)
liyunyun (turbulentihcaa@gmail.com) 与 2017-06-28 11:23:43
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chenlili (分数: 1)
chenlixiang (chenlixiang@yahoo.com) 与 2017-08-14 16:43:41
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