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 会馆历史: 福建四座清真寺



福建四座清真寺

作者:王铁藩
   
   “清真寺”是伊斯兰教徒举行宗教仪式、传授宗教知识的寺院的通称。福建现存有四座清真寺,其址分别在福州、泉州、厦门、邵武四个地方。
误用名称的泉州清净寺
    在泉州东城的清真寺,现名“清净寺”,又叫“麒麟寺”,创建于北宋祥符2年(1009年),是中国现存最古老的清真寺之一。据专家考证,它是由侨居在泉州的穆斯林集资创建的,当时名为“圣友寺”;而称为“清净寺”的原是地处南城的另一所伊斯兰教寺,建于南宋绍兴元年(1131年),元末寺毁,寺中的碑刻被移到东城圣友寺,所以后人误认圣友寺为清净寺。现存主要建筑有寺门、奉天坛和明善堂。寺门朝南,高20米,宽4.5米,用青、白花岗岩砌成,分外中内三层,为圆形穹顶尖拱门。屋顶有平台,是伊斯兰教徒斋月时在此望月,并决定起斋日期的地方!奉天坛在大门西侧,早塌,今仅存四周石墙。东墙正中开一门,南墙开八个大窗,北墙正中开一门,西墙正中有拱宝盖形大壁龛,左右各辟一门,南北相对,这地方叫“讲经坛”,是阿訇领教徒礼拜的地方。寺门和奉天坛都是仿照叙利亚大马士革伊斯兰礼拜堂的形式而建,为中国现存清真寺所仅见。1961年该寺列为全国第一批重点文物保护单位,寺名是根据寺中存放中文碑刻“清净寺”名称申报的。至后来发现原有阿拉伯文,所谓的“圣友之寺”,已来不及更正,祗好“将错就错”了。明善堂在奉天坛之北,是明隆庆元年(1567年)按照北方民居四合院式样建筑的礼拜堂,堂前置精雕石香炉一座,周围辟有花园。
    泉州清净寺自颁布为国家级重点文物保护单位之后,国家即拨巨资拟按原貌恢复奉天坛。建筑师们参考叙利亚大马士革礼拜堂形式,经过多年努力,设计方案已经就绪;然而,在清理土地准备施工时,发现原有基础不可能荷戴沉重的石构屋顶建筑物,此项工程祗好停止施工,再行研究。奉天坛原貌,屋顶究竟何样?至今尚在争论不休。看来,重建方案不是朝夕能作定论的。
福州清真寺初名真教寺
    福州清真寺在鼓楼区安泰桥下,寺宇座西朝东。此地原为五代时闽王王继鹏(即王旭)的大平宫,后晋天福元年(公元936年)王继鹏即皇位,喜捨为“万寿院”(佛教寺);元代至正年间,始归伊斯兰教所有。其址东临大街,西至民居,南起官贤坊(今道山路),北至万寿巷(今安乐巷)。初名“真教寺”,俗称“礼拜寺”,不知何时改名为“清真寺”?
    明嘉靖20年(1541年),该寺曾毁于火,是年冬重建,越八年落成。重建的清真寺仍采用中国传统的建筑形式,据明嘉靖重建碑记云:拜堂居中,左庑为茶厅,右庑为房廊、厨舍,两侧尚有阿訇、穆安津等专职穆民住宅;拜堂面对华表。1950年实地调查时,该寺占地面积仅存2300平方米。拜堂为单簷五脊顶,深广均为七柱七间排,成正方形。拜堂前为宽阔走廊,正中陈列一座鼎炉,外护一道石栏杆,中立“永乐圣谕”、“嘉靖重建”等七座石碑,华表已不见。庭院左右两庑,均已改为茶厅及阿訇居室。临街的寺门,已于民国间拓宽马路时,改建为店屋。店后有两道围墙,第一道墙门额题“绿源”两篆字,第二道墙门额书阿拉伯文字,译为“万物非主,唯有真主。穆罕默德是主的使者。”这些题字虽然是民国年间更改的,但内部建筑物仍保存明代的建筑风格。堂前石栏杆尚是宋代万寿院遗物。
    1955年,该寺拜堂改建,因限于经费,改成平面“工”字形,穆民对此颇有意见,认为应恢复原有“回”字形。1989年初,遵照穆民的建议,将原挡住寺门的店屋拆除,改建为伊斯兰建筑形式砖石结构的三层圆顶“邦克楼”,现在已经完工。多年来被包围在店铺后面的清真寺,即将重现光辉。
兼具中阿风格的邵武清真寺
    邵武清真寺在市区和平巷。据明《嘉靖邵武府志》记载:“清真寺在迎春坊委巷,色目人建以奉其教。香花洒扫,别为一家。”按元代蒙古军进入福建邵武后,驻重兵于此,随之而来的回民在此经商。他们聚居在迎春坊一带,成为当地居民。
    邵武清真寺创建于明洪武5年(1372年),原在回民聚居地迎春坊乌龙井巷;明嘉靖初年被火焚毁。五年后,杨姓教民献出自己的住宅,改建为今寺,当地马、苏、沙、范等姓伊斯兰教民常来此礼拜诵经。寺由望月楼、礼拜堂、茶厅、水房、寺门等组成。望月楼在寺门外,为双层攒尖顶的中国式楼阁。礼拜堂为中国式木构平房,呈正方形;堂内北面设“讲经坛”,坛壁正面门,进为壁龛。龛内书写有古阿拉伯经文,堂前护有石栏杆,庭院两侧为茶厅、房舍,供教民休憩。冲水房在堂侧,根据教规:入堂礼拜必先冲洗洁身。寺内有花园,广植葡萄和其他花木,其园林布局具有阿拉伯风格,堂宇又具有中国明代建筑特征,中阿掺合,别其特色。
小巧玲珑的厦门清真寺
    厦门清真寺,在公园南路玉屏巷,创建于清道光29年(1849年),祗有一堂一院;清同治年间,厦门海防厅马司马拓建三座,即门厅、中厅和拜堂,旁有净浴堂和茶厅,占地面积仅500平方米。清光绪28年(1902年),树立碑记;民国13年(1924年)重修。
厦门清真寺在全省四所清真寺中历史最短、规模最小。厦门辟为五口通商后,伊斯兰教民逐渐增多,原有的木构平房式寺宇已不适应需要。1985年,该寺将主体木构建筑物拆除,改建为钢筋混凝土的礼拜堂,旁有会议室(茶厅)、冲洗房等,继而将寺门改建为三层圆屋顶的邦克楼。所有改建工程于1988年全部落成,如今寺貌焕然一新、气魄巍巍,大有后来居上之势。

(作者:
福建林则徐纪念馆馆长)

本文发表于《东方龙》1990年8月第7期


本文章来自 中国会馆http://huiguan.org.cn

这份报导的永久网址是: http://huiguan.org.cn/modules.php?name=Tang&file=article&sid=263


贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2007-06-03 03:37:03
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Re: 福建四座清真寺 (分数: 1)
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