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泉州的海外会馆

作者:汤锦程
据史书记载:福建背山面海,人多地少,土地贫瘠,耕者视海为田,因此海洋是福建人与外界取得联系的一条重要通道。唐末,西部陆路丝绸之路开始衰竭,海上丝绸之路的地位就更加凸显出来,经过宋元时期的发展,至明清时期海上丝绸之路已经进入鼎盛时期。泉州因其地理位置突出,又是海上丝绸之路古港,因此泉州被世誉为“世界最大港之一”;而泉州海商也成为世界以地区为集团的著名海上商帮。

一 泉州人的闯海习俗
泉州,古为闽越之地,闽越人自称是龙的子孙,自古就有飘洋过海闯荡世界的习俗,因而闽越族成为南海诸岛及东南亚各国先民之一,早在唐代泉州就已经成为世界文化交流和商业贸易的重要港口。据史记载:唐代,鉴真大师由泉州古港东渡日本进行中日佛教文化交流;北宋末年,泉州苏氏家族就开始迁居台湾;泉州陈氏家族亦随其后于元代移居台湾。十七世纪后,泉州大规模移民台湾曾有过三次高潮:(一)明天启年间,盘踞在台湾的海盗集团首领、泉州人郑芝龙招其家乡晋江、南安3000余人去台湾开荒居住,成为郑芝龙建立私家武装的基础;(二)清顺治18年(1661年),顺治皇帝驾崩,新皇康熙即立,因康熙年仅8岁,而清王朝又处在国丧之期,因此不敢轻易挑起东南沿海战争。以厦门为抗清基地的明延平郡王郑成功为建立后方基地趁机率海军舰队攻打台湾,将盘踞在台湾的荷兰红毛一举击败逐出台湾。台湾收复后,郑成功在此设立州县,招募泉州等沿海不肯降清的民众20万人去台湾屯垦,这是台湾有史以来最大一次移民。由于泉州人富有经营意识和开拓精神,台湾的生产能力和生活水平得到飞跃发展,一度超过大陆内地的生活水平;(三)清康熙22年(1683年)统一台湾,宣布取消海禁,泉州人去台湾定居者逐渐多起来。据民国35年(1946年)统计:台湾的泉州人有170万人,因台湾人以泉州人居多,所以泉州人讲的闽南话成为台湾通用方言。
明初,政府实行海禁,但泉州人为与西方远航东方的葡萄牙、西班牙、荷兰等国商业集团争夺海上商贸霸权,其不顾政府禁令纷纷造船冒死闯海。海上贸易为一年一次,冬去夏归十分艰苦,且有生命危险,但因获利多达十余倍,所以诱惑更多的农民放弃土地下海经商;因此泉州十家就有九户经商,商业的获利为泉州教育发展起到了推动作用,故而在泉州“家家弦乐响,户户读书声。”就连靠海盗生涯富冠八闽的郑芝龙亦知让儿子郑成功去南京国子监读书,以求其日后能改变世人对南安郑氏家族的蔑视,为此泉州经济地位和教育地位一度领袖中外。由于政府干预,官逼民反,乃至造成明时祸乱东南十余年的“倭寇之乱”。泉州郑芝龙利用明政府的招安政策接受招抚,当上了明朝都督同知,成为福建的军事长官;同时他借用朝廷势力清除异己,扩大私家武装,并一度以同安为基地拥兵三万、战船千艘,割据福建成为南海沿海上最大的商业集团。
明末清初,泉州郑氏家族第二代郑成功因护国抗清之功被南明唐王赐为国姓“朱”,又被南明永历皇帝封为“延平郡王”。随着大陆陷入大清王朝之手,郑成功以武力驱逐红毛收复台湾,并以台湾为基地力图恢复明王朝。其后郑经、郑克爽两世因受清王朝禁海政策影响,自知以一岛之人力物力抗衡中国终非长事,因此郑氏集团在清军兵临城下之时被迫向清政府投降。清康熙23年(1684年),清政府采纳了泉州人施琅“开放海禁”的奏请,泉州人再度活跃于海上,并从南海海域拓展到阿拉伯海和非洲海岸,乃至整个世界。
二 泉州人在海外的分布
通过海上贸易发展起来的泉州人,不但给家乡带来滚滚的财源,而且在世界各国都拥有自己的商业基地和贸易中转站,为了维护其在海外事业的发展,泉州人开始大批向海外移民,在各国设立坐办、公所、商社、商会,因此泉州人遍及海外各国,是世界公认的最大移民地区。
据《泉州县志》民国28年(1939年)统计:泰国有18万泉州人;1988年统计:泉州同乡在缅甸有17万人、越南有10万人、菲律宾有7万人、柬埔寨有3万人、秘鲁有3万人、美国有1万余人、荷兰有9000人、日本有8900人、法国有7000人、德国有5000人、留尼汪岛有5000人、英国有4000人、奥地利有3000人、意大利有3000人、委内瑞拉有3000人、巴拿马有3000人、新西兰有3000人、瑞典有2000人、阿根廷有2000人、苏里南有1000人、墨西哥有1000人、巴布亚新几内亚有1000人、玻利维亚有1000人、巴拉圭有1000人、毛里求斯有1000人、南非有1000人、印度有1000人、斯里兰卡有1000人、关岛有700人、北马里亚纳群岛有500人、韩国有300人、瑞士有300人、丹麦有300人、伯利兹有300人、西班牙有200人、希腊有100人、孟加拉有100人、古巴有100人、巴哈马有100人、安提瓜有100人、汤加有100人。从上述地区的泉州移民统计可以看出,几乎在世界各国均有泉州人的身影和踪迹,充分地体现出泉州人的拼搏精神、亲和关系和移植能力。由于泉州在各国的移民占据主导地位,因而在海外形成以地域为核心的华人社团。
三 泉州在海外的会馆
泉州人在海外为了保存自己的民族文化,团结同乡、同宗,维护泉州商帮的商业利益,先后在世界各国修建了具有闽派建筑艺术的泉州会馆、商务会馆、同业公所、宗族会馆、姓氏会馆。据史料记载:清咸丰4年(1854年),泉州人在缅甸兴建陈氏颖顺堂(公所);民国9年(1920年),泉州人在缅甸建安溪会馆,至1984年缅甸已有泉州5所会馆;宗亲社团共15所。继缅甸泉州会馆成立之后,各国泉州同乡也不示弱纷纷集资筹建同乡会馆。清同治6年(1867年),新加坡泉州人于新加坡建永春会馆,到1953年新加坡已有泉州同乡社团7个;宗亲社团15个;同乡经济社团8个。
马来西亚的泉州会馆居全世界泉州会馆之最。清光绪8年(1882年),泉州同乡于马来西亚柔佛州建巴冬永春会馆;清光绪9年(1883年),泉州同乡在马来西亚霹雳州建太平仁和公所;到1987年泉州人在马来西亚共建有86所会馆,其中最为著名的泉州会馆是清光绪18年(1892年)在马来西亚雪兰莪州创建的“永春公所”和清光绪24年(1898年)在马来西亚森美兰州创建的“永春会馆”。
19世纪90年代,菲律宾泉州移民进入鼎盛时期。清光绪29年(1903年),泉州人在菲律宾创建了泉州闽商会馆,至1952年菲律宾已有泉州文教体育社团30个。1980年统计,菲律宾已有泉州宗亲会馆34所,其中最为著名的有“肖钟章叶林尤沈七兰堂宗亲总会”、“洪龚方汪翁江六桂堂总会”、“魏冯梁毕万五姓联宗会”、“金丁马白郭清真五姓联宗会”、“吕卢高许纪五姓联宗总会”、“姚虞陈胡田五姓联宗总会”、“刘杜留侯四姓宗亲总会”、“曾邱丘三姓宗亲总会”等。1990年,菲律宾统计已有泉州会馆12所。
随着泉州人在世界各国的地位不断地提高,经济基础更加稳固,泉州人在海外的会馆也不断地增多,使其成为世界华人社团中的佼佼者。海外泉州会馆对联络宗亲、团结同乡、敦睦乡谊、保存文化、济困扶危、抵御外强、共同奋进起到很大作用,是海外华人社会不容忽视的主体文化。



本文发表于《东方龙》2002年第15期



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