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《永济揽胜》

                              作者:汤锦程
(汤锦程新浪博客http://blog.sina.com.cn/u/3125856053)
    永济县位于晋南九曲黄河之滨,居华夏之中,襟山带河,形胜甲于天下。永济县古称蒲坂,为帝舜之都,据《永济县志》载:蒲州城自古以来是长安和河东两大地域的交通枢纽。由于永济县历史悠久、文化发达,地接豫、陕,自古有三省都会之美誉,因而经济繁荣,物冠河东。应晋南文化泰斗杜东明、樊晋英等诸友之邀,金秋时节,我应邀踏访了古都永济县。
一、访鹳雀楼遗址
    鹳雀楼与腾王阁、黄鹤楼、岳阳楼古时有中国四大名楼之称,然而,历经千百年的风雨剥蚀,腾王阁、黄鹤楼、岳阳楼仍屹立于长江之畔,独黄河之畔的鹳雀楼如昙花一现,不知所终,只有王之涣《登鹳雀楼》千古绝句:“白日依山尽,黄河入海流。欲穷千里目,更上一层楼。”传颂不衰。经友人指点,方知鹳雀楼遗址就在黄河古渡“蒲津渡”之畔,昔日繁华的楼阁,今只存一土丘。
二、观唐开元铁牛
从唐代诗人王之涣《登鹳雀楼》一诗中,可知黄河曾流经永济县,然而今只有蒲津渡之名,却不见黄河入海流的壮丽景观。但据有关史料记载:唐玄宗曾命兵部尚书张说修建蒲津桥,熔铁17万斤,铸铁牛、铁兵为桥墩,冶铁链为缆,架设蒲津桥,以连结秦晋交通,后因黄河改道,黄河两岸的八尊铁牛和八尊铁兵均被泥沙掩埋,黄河两岸今已成良田,绿浪翻滚。1989731日,经永济县博物馆文物工作者的努力,终于使开元铁牛、铁兵重见天日。每尊铁牛长约3米,重达万斤,组成一个四方阵,形似河东黄牛,栩栩如生,各由一铁人牵牢,牛尾上配有大轴,连结铁索链。现出土的四尊铁牛和四尊铁兵已对外参观,因文物保护能力不足,现已探明河对岸的铁牛、铁兵遗址,就在古城西门外,然却无力挖掘和保护,至今仍沉睡于泥土之中等待着与游人见面,为永济县旅游事业贡献余热。
三、登普救寺名刹
  普救寺屹立于永济县西村峨嵋原上,始建于唐代武则天时期,为武后香火院,故名西永清院。五代时,后汉大将郭威平定河东节度使叛乱,救民于水深火热之中,民为祀其德,改西永清院名为普救寺。明代初年,广化、旌勋、藏海、乾明四大寺院与普救寺合并,使普救寺规模宏大,为中国著名佛教圣地之一,香火繁盛,千古不绝。
  普救寺因元稹《会真记》传奇文学而流芳古今,虽然普救寺几经焚毁,但元代王实甫根据《会真记》改编的《崔莺莺待月西厢下》却传唱不衰。1986年,政府拨款修复了普救寺,重现《西厢记》故事中的历史格局。
    莺莺塔吉建艺术独特,用石相击可传出蛙鸣,这种独特的声学效应,与北京的回音壁不分伯仲,堪称奇观。
四、古城兵戎相见
    “蒲坂”地处三省交会之处,自古为兵家必争之地,成汤革夏,五国伐秦都发生在此地。其虽仅存不足2米高的断垣残墙,对我来说仍具巨大的吸引力。我们乘坐的吉普车刚刚在断墙边停稳,只见一只猎犬突然窜起,勇猛地追逐一只被汽车惊吓出的野兔,就在那段曾是刀光剑影的残垣下,猎犬捕获了那只无辜的野兔。河东这块历经战火蹂躏的土地,古风犹存于禽兽之间,就像黄河边牵牛的铁兵,永远怒目圆睁,保持着战斗状态。但永济民风朴实,绝非铁兵及猎犬的冷漠、好战,我们一行受到当地民众的热情厚待,有宾至如归之感,当我登车远去时,古都的文物古迹已深深地根植于我心中。

1997
104日本文发表于《中国轻工报》


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2008-08-26 18:54:00
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