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 会馆民俗: 南汇特色的民间塑雕技艺



                                                        南汇特色的民间塑雕技艺

作者:妥国荣 


南汇地处长江、钱塘江的汇合处,具有浓郁的江南水乡特点,人杰地灵、物产富庶,文化颇为发达,民间文艺名目繁多、欣欣向荣,现择其中富有南汇特色的民间塑雕技艺介绍一二: 
1.套板葫芦: 
清末民初起,本县西部地区流行一种工艺品,名叫“套板葫芦”,即在葫芦刚结果时,套上各种模型,使其长成各种形状,并刻以景物书画;待果老去模,纹皆透现。有诗曰:“莫言依样画葫芦,一样葫芦几样模,幻出四方兼六角,法书名画迹工摹。” 
2.砖雕、纸灰塑: 
清末民初,本县流行在庙宇、祠堂及住宅的屋脊和“仪门头”上镶嵌和配置各种砖雕、纸灰塑成的花卉鸟兽、戏剧人物等饰品,精美生动、形态逼真。最负盛名的大团镇“张家仪门头”,建于清乾隆年间,仪门上首雕刻龙、凤、人物,中嵌“比部第”长匾一方,系乾隆御笔,气势巍峨。(注:纸灰塑——是由石灰加纸筋拌和而成)。 
3.木雕 
清代后期,由于官绅和地主的家宅建筑日趋华丽,多求雕刻,不少建筑画栋雕墚、富丽堂皇。故我县木雕巧匠甚多,技术高超。最具代表的为盐仓星火村的周楚卿,曾刻有72种不同姿态的骏马和“八仙过海”、“四大金刚”、“西方三圣”等大型作品多幅,惜已散失,仅存“封神榜”立体花板,于1952年由中央手工工艺馆珍藏。横沔乡夏保庙的两座精雕“忏亭”(四层浮雕)已有140余年历史,1985年参加荷兰鹿丹州和比利时安特巴普的“中国上海展”倍受赞赏。日本收藏家愿出四万美元高价收买。 
4.扎花 
扎花工艺是以无锡惠泉泥造型,上膏开相;再以竹兑、稻草、绢布,扎成躯体;再根据剧情,为人物配置道具服饰或蟒袍乌靴、珠冠玉带,或雉尾高挑、明盔亮甲,或“帅”字旗、威武架等。件件精工细缀,人物各具形态,五彩缤纷。成品置于玻璃座罩内,并以布景烘托,犹如舞台缩影,情景交融、浑然一体。作品有《麻姑献寿》、《天女散花》、《武松打虎》、《苏武牧羊》、《追韩信》、《打金枝》、《打渔杀家》、《穆桂英挂帅》等戏文造型,生旦净丑,各有千秋o 

(作者:南汇县文化局干部中国太平洋历史学会民间文化艺术分会会员) 

本文发表于《东方龙》1990年8月第7期


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2008-05-11 16:17:55
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