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 会馆民俗: 孝子还是孝女---析说杨香打虎



二十四孝古今谈之二

孝子还是孝女

——析说杨香打虎

作者:纪晓辉

我们前面说过,许多孝子及事迹虽然源于历史真实,但在千百年传诵中被大量加入了新的人为因素、补充了新的信息,使人物、故事出现了变形扭曲,这种情形产生的结果,就是加剧了人们对孝子人物及事迹的怀疑程度。纵观《二十四孝》中的二十多个故事,其中让人们对其真实性产生疑惑的一个显著例子就是《杨香打虎》。这是因为一方面杨香打虎同许多《二十四孝》中的大孝子一样原籍故里被不同地区的人们争来夺去;而另一方面,就连杨香的性别也成为了后人加工臆造的对象。这在整个《二十四孝》所有故事当中是绝无仅有的。

在《二十四孝》中《杨香打虎》也被称为《扼虎救父》其原文如下:“晋杨香,年十四岁,尝随父丰往田获杰粟。父为虎拽去。时香手无寸铁,惟知有父而不知有身,踊跃向前,扼持虎颈,虎亦靡然而逝,父才得免于害。”这段故事翻译成白话文就是:晋朝人杨香,十四岁时随父亲杨丰到田间收稻谷。父亲被忽然跑来的一只猛虎扑倒叼走。当时杨香手无寸铁,没有任何武器,只想救父亲而全然不顾自己的安危,猛扑到老虎跟前,扼住猛虎的脖子不放。猛虎竟颓然地放下杨父跑掉了,父亲终于捡回了性命,没有受到伤害。故事的结尾按《二十四孝》惯例题有赞颂诗一首:深山逢白虎,努力搏腥风。父子俱无恙,脱离谗口中。

从上述故事中,我们得知杨香是一名弱冠少年,在父亲遇到生命危险时,不顾一切,赤手空拳与老虎搏斗,最终救下了父亲。实际上有关杨香打虎救父,还有多种版本,有一些甚至于比上文故事更加离奇,说是,老虎不是被杨香打跑了,而是被杨香杀死了,更有甚者说是被杨香活活给掐死的。结局虽然比老虎逃走更加大快人心,但得到的社会反响则是更加让人对事情的真实性疑心大起。

而这样的少年孝子成为了湖北与河南两地共同争夺的对象,位于中国黄河与长江两大水系的炎黄子孙们,互不相让,谁都要把杨香老乡的桂冠戴在自己头上,满足自己乃是孝子杨香同乡之虚荣心。这些在我们全面细读《二十四孝》之后,本可一笑置之,但是就有一点让我们所有人听后都瞪大的眼睛,不能等闲视之,那就是,杨香并非男童,而是一个如花似玉的小姑娘。

女孩子赤手空拳打死老虎?这简直是天方夜谈!本来就让人生疑的打虎事迹,因这一性别变化则显得更加让人难以置信,但这个孝女打虎的孝行的确是真的。将其变性的始作俑者非是别人,而是《二十四孝》的作者郭居敬。此事还要从头说起。

关于杨香(一说名为杨昌)其人,经笔者对《二十四孝》中这个人物进行的考证,有多种迹象表明,在《二十四孝》成书之前,杨香实为一名女子,他本是晋代时江夏(今湖北省)或沁阳(今河南省)杨丰的女儿,这个故事从晋代开始至元代,长达千年民间传诵中,杨香性别为女子并无悬念。在考古学家对北宋遗址发掘中,曾经出土的一块刻有“杨香打虎救父”故事的砖雕,砖高19cm,宽26cm,厚3cm。砖为长方形,砖面内凹凿成壼门状,上刻“杨香”2字。画面左侧一女子骑于虎背之上,右侧一男子侧身躲闪。这幅砖雕因其制作于元代之前一朝代,离元代时间跨度不大,可见直到有宋一代,杨香为少女形象还是社会之共识。在口头文学的耳传、口授、面命之中,故事情节是极容易发生扭曲变形的,但元代之前的故事变形只存在于打虎情节内容方面。从文学角度考虑,故事情节愈是离奇夸张,就愈能增加可读性,因此打虎变扼虎,打跑成打死,都是这一阶段的口头文学产物,但是直到此时,民间尚未在杨香性别上做手脚,为这个孝女进行变性手术。杨香的形象经千百年民间塑造,直至宋朝时,基本定型为:一名舍身救父的翩翩少女,在父亲落入虎口危在旦夕之即,赤手空拳打死老虎。一名孝女英雄杨香横空出世,成为了世所景仰的孝道巾帼英雄。

这一哙啖人口的故事,这样一个伟大的孝女形象,让以宣传孝道文化为己任的《二十四孝》作者郭居敬很不舒服,原因是,这一个小女孩能赤手空拳打死老虎,这样的情节太不可信,但此孝行在二十四孝题材上别具不格,弃之不用未免可惜;再则这样的突出感人事迹,理然当然应该由孝子所为,方显孝子之德行重要,这样的荣誉岂能奉送女人。理应该一切荣誉归孝子。于是,郭居敬开始对杨香事迹进行改造。将扼虎变打虎,将打死老虎,退后一步变为打跑,将女孩子改为少年。经过这一番处理之后的杨香救父故事,可信性大大提高,最为重要的是在二十四孝中降低了孝女比例,增加了孝子数量,特别是最激动人心,最感人肺腑的尽孝事迹是男子创造出来的。这一点对于郭居敬来讲是最为重要的。

综合分析可知,郭居敬将杨香性别改变出于两个原因,一则是让“孝子打虎救父”比“孝女打虎救父”故事增加可信度;再则就是郭居敬心目中存在的根深蒂固的“男尊女卑”思想作怪(在《二十四孝》中这种思潮无处不在)。二者结合,促成了在《二十四孝》成书时,一名女孩变成了男孩子,孝女事迹变成了孝子功劳!郭居敬虽然为后世留下了宣传中国传统孝道文化的不朽佳作,但其本人品格上确存在极其严重的男尊女卑思想,这一点,是让后世所诟病的。

我们去粗取精、去伪存真的去分析并客观不戴有色眼镜去还原这一事件,其基本情节大概应该是这样的:

杨香随父亲杨丰去田里收稻谷,手中未必是赤手空拳,拿着收割利器理所当然(如镰刀),而一个务农出身的女孩,绝非是富贵人家的大家闺秀那般弱不禁风,强壮与力量这些本不应该用于赞美女孩子的词汇,都能够应用在杨香身上。在正常情况下,无论男女,赤手空拳打死老虎都是不可想象的(景阳岗武松除外),但是,如果是在亲人面临生死、危在旦夕之时,人体潜能爆发出来的力量是不可想象的,是不能够用正常标准来衡量的。而当老虎在扑倒咬住杨香老父亲杨丰时,一则父女情深是没有可选择余地的只能是不顾一切奋勇向前,二则是老虎口中叼咬着杨丰,是腾不出口再去对付杨香进攻的,这就使杨香对老虎的攻击极易手,就是利用这一机会,杨香手持的锋利农具,击伤了老虎,老虎负痛之下,松开杨丰落荒而逃,是完全有可能的。但出于对孝子英雄事迹的“高大全”塑造的需要。也是人们出于对打虎少女的敬佩与赞叹,杨香手持利刃打虎,变形为赤手空拳,甚至变为扼死(即掐死)老虎(这一点最为不可信,试想一个女孩子她的手有多大,怎么能够扼住那么粗的虎颈?而且让老虎窒息需要的力量与时间,这些硬道理,恐怕不仅是杨香,就是打虎英雄武松也不具备);打跑老虎变形为打死老虎。这样本来一个急红眼之下,女孩子能够亦能够做到的事情,变形后,就是强壮男人也是根本无法胜任了。

郭居敬将这一孝义之举的主人公改换了性别,也将打死、掐死变为了打跑,这样改编的目的主要是:一方面可增加孝行的可信度,再则也扩大了《二十四孝》中孝子队伍。满足了自己那根深蒂固的男尊女卑情节。

这就是《二十四孝》中杨香性别转换的来龙去脉。


2014年3月21日



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Re: 孝子还是孝女---析说杨香打虎 (分数: 1)
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Re: 孝子还是孝女---析说杨香打虎 (分数: 1)
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Re: 孝子还是孝女---析说杨香打虎 (分数: 1)
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Re: 孝子还是孝女---析说杨香打虎 (分数: 1)
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Re: 孝子还是孝女---析说杨香打虎 (分数: 1)
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