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 会馆文化: 古时对年龄的称谓



古时对年龄的称谓[3]


孩提:两至三岁。

始龀、髫年:女孩七岁,男孩八岁。说明:根据生理状况,男孩八岁、女孩七岁换牙,脱去乳齿,长出恒牙,这时叫“龀”,“龆年”或“髫年”。

总角:幼年泛称。

垂髻之年:指儿童。(古代小孩头发下垂,引申以指未成年的人。)

黄口:十岁以下。

幼学:十岁。(《礼记?曲礼上》:“人生十年曰幼,学。”因为古代文字无标点,人们就截取“幼学”二字作为十岁代称。)

金钗之年:女孩十二岁。

豆蔻年华:女子十三四岁。

志学:十五岁。(《论语》:子曰:“吾十有五而志于学……”)

及笄:女子十五岁。(《礼记?内则》:“女子十有五年而笄。”)

碧玉年华、破瓜之年:女子十六岁。(旧时文人拆“瓜”字为二八纪年,谓十六岁,多用于女子。)

弱冠:男子二十岁。(《礼记?曲礼上》:“二十曰弱冠。”)

桃李年华:女子二十岁。

花信年华:女子二十四岁。

而立:三十岁。

不惑:四十岁。

知天命:五十岁。(《论语》:子曰:“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。“)

知非之年:五十岁。(《淮南子?原道训》:“伯玉年五十,而有四十九年非。”说春秋卫国有个伯玉,不断反省自己,到五十岁时知道了以前四十九年中的错误,后世因而用“知非”代称五十岁。)

耳顺、花甲之年:六十岁。(我国自古以来用天干地支互相错综相合纪年,可组成六十对干支,因而称作“六十干支”或“六十花甲子”,所以六十岁又称作“花甲之年”。)

古稀:七十岁。(杜甫《曲江二首》:“酒债寻常行处有,人生七十古来稀。”)

耄耋:八十、九十岁。(《礼记?曲礼》:“八十九十曰耄。”人们根据这解释,把耄耋两字连用代称八、九十岁。)

期颐:百岁之人。(《礼记?曲礼》:“百年曰期颐。”意思是人生以百年为期,所以称百岁为“期颐之年。”元人陈浩解释说:“人寿以百年为期,故曰期;饮食起居动人无不待于养,故曰颐。”)

花甲重开:一百二十岁

古稀双庆:一百四十岁

耄耋老人

部分农村地区在人死亡时称呼年龄

0——20岁为夭折

21——30岁为短寿

31——40岁为强寿

41——50岁为艾寿

51——60岁为周寿

61——70岁为稀寿

71——80岁为耋寿

81——90岁为耄寿

91——100岁为期颐

古时男女称呼年龄是有区别的,一般来讲,男性称X寿,而女性是不称寿的,一般称福。

在云南罗平富乐有一块古匾“期颐人瑞”,说的是该村王姓一女老人曾经活到一百多岁,所以有这个称呼。

该村何姓有一匾“冀衍耄耋”,是女儿送的,其中冀是期望、希望的意思,衍在这儿有延长、达到的意思,耄耋的本意是八九十岁的人,在这儿引申为高寿。整个的意思为期望父亲身体健康,永享高龄(寿),活到八九十岁。



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贴出者为 tjc800    贴出时间为 2014-01-27 17:36:29
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