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 会馆旅游: 鼓山“坐韦驮”史实



鼓山“坐韦驮”史实

作者:王铁藩

    鼓山是我国名擅东南的名山,山半涌泉寺有一尊坐着的韦驮也擅名远近。
    韦驮在佛教中是护法天神.大大小小的寺院都有他,有棒杵的、有执杵的、也有按杵的,不论什么形态,总是站着执行其职务。鼓山涌泉寺为什么让韦驮坐了下来呢?说来有一段神奇的故事。
    清雍正12(1773),涌泉寺方丈圆玉禅师奉旨进京,协助编修《藏经》,寺务委托给有经验的当家僧主持。不久,他带回一部御赐《藏经》,这时他年纪已高,提出辞职,要到延平天宁寺休养;却提名自己的徒弟象先为方丈候选人。
    象先法名法印,原是宁化李氏子,自幼出家,刻苦好学,甚得其师喜爱。这时象先只有16岁,论学问,大众都佩服他;论处世,有否能力承当这座大寺的领导?却大有问题。寺中有办事能力的执事僧,虽然不满意;但因碍于老和尚推荐,谁也不敢吭声,选举顺利通过。象先正式就任方丈后,更加埋头钻研佛学,并刺血写经,寺中大小事务,其从不过问。绝大多数执事僧都抱着“走着瞧”的态度,不予配合;应办的事,事先也不来提醒,这样可糟了。大家都知道,要支撑一所大寺,要靠官府支持、乡神施舍,没有灵活的交际能力,四、五百僧众吃饭就成了大问题。象先不知,职事僧又不管,吃一天过一天,直到粮食快要吃尽了,管仓库的才来报告“粮米只剩下两天了”。
    这时象先才大吃一惊,他急忙放下手中的经卷召开寺务会议。平时很会说话的,今天却不发一言,被问急了,竟念起“南无阿弥陀佛”来。虽然,有一两位发言,除说些“长老法力无边,必然感动我佛”的话之外,也没有其他内容。象先急得团团乱转,他想来想去,除求佛念经别无良策。于是,他走上大雄殿,看到吾佛如来紧闭双眼正在修身养性,怎好去打扰他呢?他又转到天王殿,弥勒佛正在欢天喜地,也不该去烦恼他;看来,只有求救于韦驮天了。象先拈一把香,跪在韦驮膝下祷告一番,俯伏地上纳首便拜、必诚必敬,一直拜到腰酸手软,再也支持不住了,才回到禅房歇息。
象先在似醒似梦中,韦驮果然出现在他面前,对他说:“明天一早有人送米来,快到江边挑米吧。”象先惊醒过来,擦掉一身冷汗,发现自己躺在床上,觉得有失戒律。于是,他急忙起身盘足静坐,可是一颗心总安静不下,忐忐忑忑一直到天色微明,才走下禅床。象先草草洗过脸,就敲动云扳,传众僧前来听话。这时众僧也起身了,正准备上殿做早课,听说大和尚有话吩咐,就拢将过来。象先双掌合十,默默祷颂一番,提高声调对大众说:“昨晚韦天显梦,叫咱们今早下山到江边挑米。年老体弱的不要去啦,就留在殿中做功课;年轻力壮的快去准备扁担,跟我一起下山去吧。”这句话可把大家都听呆了,有人大胆提问:“山下果真有米吗?”象先很有把握地说:“下了山就知道了。”青壮年不敢违拗,扮个鬼脸,分头去准备扁担、麻袋;有几个年老的本来可以不去,因为他是“走着瞧”的,所以也跟了大伙一起下山去凑凑热闹。
一行百余人,翻过灵源洞,浩浩荡荡沿着一条通往魁岐的小路下山。走到半山腰,就看见江边有—艘海船被一队官兵团团围住,不知哪个倒霉的,今天又被逮住了。原来清雍正年间,海禁仍然很严,走私一被查获就要问斩。这艘确是走私船,他们偷运白米往暹罗国贩卖,暹罗平时不乏大米,但因国王泰萨罗王驾崩,为争夺王位而引起一场战争造成粮荒。想不到走私船在大海中航行时,突然狂风大作,只得就近折入闽江口避风,却被盘查哨发现,一直追到魁岐,在此停泊接受审查。米商惧怕杀头,编造谎言,说是运米前来施舍给鼓山涌泉寺的,不属于下海走私。哨官那肯相信,正在盘问间,看见山上来了这么多手执扁担的僧众,就问象先说:“事先没有和你们联系施舍之事,你们怎么知来这里挑米?”象先急忙回答:“我昨晚梦见韦驮显灵,所以才下山来接。”那米商机灵得很,也凑上前插话说:“是呀,我的船在海中航行,突然狂风大作,大雾迷漫,也是韦驮显灵指引我们进入闽江口的。”哨官也很迷信,听说韦驮显灵,也就不敢再追问下去,允许卸米。那米商保住头颅不搬家,是不幸中的大幸,也乐意护送大米登山,办理施舍手续。
大米—进山门,等不及进仓,大伙就拥到韦驮像前答谢,只见韦驮浑身冒着大汗,好像累得站不起身来。这就奇了,土塑木雕的神像,那能冒出汗水呢?原来这泥塑金身内中涂有多层青漆,一遇阴天,湮气被漆挡住,不能被土吸收,化作点点水珠,被称为“倒阴汗”,这是很平常的事,其他佛像也是如此;只是今天情况特殊,大家注意力只集中在韦驮身上,所以显得特别奇怪。众僧惊异之余,一齐俯伏阶前叩拜,高呼:“韦驮天,你太辛苦了!请休息吧。”象先立即传寺内塑工,再塑一尊韦驮坐像,让他在大殿上休息,这就是鼓山特有的“坐韦驮”的来历。
  鼓山韦驮显灵的故事很快被传开了,登山瞻仰的人很多,施舍也跟潮水一般涌进寺来,涌泉寺再也不愁没有粮食了。象先禅师被信众们奉为“活菩萨”供养起来,但他仍然不喜欢交际,拒绝接见僧俗;每年只定数天(不定期)为大众讲解佛法。象先登堂说法日期一被传开,远道善男信女都赶来听讲。圆通宝殿(法堂)挤得水泄不通,连月台、走廊也坐满听众。象先平时则紧闭方丈室大门,忙于刺血写经,健康一天不如一天,只活到清乾隆4(1739)便归西了,年龄只有二十多岁,掌管事务(任方丈)亦只有6年,藏“骨塔”于本山老保洋,《增校鼓山列祖联芳集》定为第—百代祖师。
    此则民间故事,也是史实。清乾隆年间,涌泉寺方丈遍照禅师为他的遗像题赞云:“翠华留不住,石鼓好藏身;有时失手—击,惊杀许多平人。”又在题跋中写道:“和尚功高法大,当鼓山缺粮时,出神超化,能来米船喜舍,真古来未有奇功。”
    象先所立的韦驮坐像,在“文革”初期,被红卫兵破“四旧”了;所刺血书写的经卷,侥幸保存下来,因没有讲解,参观的人不多。藏骨塔地点偏僻,也没有人去参观。
    鼓山的“坐韦驮”是远近闻名的,近数年来,有不少游客要求瞻仰。1988年,特聘民间著名雕塑家陈世善重塑—尊,仍陈列在大雄宝殿的东北隅。新塑的“坐韦驮”有常人一般高大,踞坐在一方岩石上,全身披甲,一手持杵,杵尖斜指地面,状似降妖伏魔。
 

(作者:福建林则徐纪念馆馆长)


本文发表于《东方龙》19913月总第8


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2007-06-05 03:38:28
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