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 会馆民俗: 朱元璋在临水的传说(民间故事)



朱元璋在临水的传说(民间故事)

作者:陶锦源

   
   相传明太祖朱元璋有个姐姐住在安徽省霍邱县临水集,他曾在这里替人放过牛,还在西大寺当过和尚;至今,在霍邱临水一带还流传着不少传说。

出生和出关


   朱元璋是安徽凤阳人,当初在母亲怀着他的时候,便被元朝军师算了出来,奏明皇帝说将有异朝“天子”在凤阳出世,现尚在母腹。皇帝老儿闻此,下令去抓怀孕妇女,抓一个杀一个。一日,元兵追赶朱元璋的母亲,正好追到一个死胡同,正在万分危急之时,谁知她屁股朝墙上一靠,那墙头便出现一个裂口,她就从裂口处逃走啦;等元兵赶到时,那墙头上的裂口又复原了。这就是人们常讲的“屁股抵墙墙开裂”的故事。她母亲在凤阳蹲不下去,便逃到浙江海盐,在惹山寺后面的一间破屋里生下了朱元璋,然后带着他四处流浪。
    由于生活困难,母亲便叫十余岁的朱元璋到临水集姐姐家去投亲。不料,朱元璋的行踪又让元朝军师算到,他算定某月某日午时,“真命天子”要从河南固始境内经过,并说“天子”过境时头顶绿阳伞,身穿紫红袍,骑匹白龙马,细吹又细打。皇帝命令在固始城门口设下重重关卡,凡出入行人都得盘查,不准漏掉一个。盘查了半天,没发现一个可疑的人,更没见到有“天子”气派的人经过。眼看午时将过,这时从城内走出了一个小要饭花子,只见他左手举着一片荷叶当阳伞,精巴屁股只系一条紫红色兜肚,左手拖着一根削掉皮的白柳条,夹在裆下当马骑,嘴里不住地“呜哩哇啦……冬冬匡匡……。”乱喊着,一蹦三跳地跑出城来。把关的官兵见到他这个样子都笑了,不加盘问就放他出了关卡。就这样,朱元璋渡过了泉河,来到霍邱临水集。


登金銮殿
   
  朱元璋姐姐家里也很穷,养活不了他,就叫他帮人家放牛,混口饭吃。
    临水集南面有座石山,半山坡上有块又宽又长的石条,坡度很大。那些放牛孩子把牛放到旱湖吃草后,都来到山坡前玩耍。
    朱元璋指着那块石条说:“那就是金銮殿,谁能坐得住,谁就当皇帝,其余的人都要朝拜。”要知这块石条不是好坐的,由于倾斜度大,一坐就会滑下去,而且下面有一道深沟,弄不好轻则受伤,重则送命。尽管小放牛们都想当“皇帝”,但谁也不敢上去坐一坐。朱元璋胆子大,也有心计,他小心地爬上山坡,居然在那块又光又滑的石条上稳稳地坐了下来,那些小孩子们都一齐跑了下来,山呼:“万岁!”所以这块石条就成了朱元璋的金銮殿,由于他经常坐,那块石条上还留下他两块屁股印子。旁边有个石坑,投进一块石头就会发出“冬冬”的响声,这就是孩子们祝朱元璋登殿时用的“地鼓地锣”。这些东西,一直到文化大革命前还在。

地牝牛
    
   东家是个吝啬鬼,不但经常打骂朱元璋,而且常常不给他饱饭吃,天还没亮就催他出去放牛,那些小伙伴们也和他一样吃不饱。
    有一天,他们商议了一下,从西大寺偷来了老和尚的铁锅和干柴,七手八脚地把一条牛杀掉,在野地里架火煮熟,小伙伴们都美美地饱餐了一顿。吃过牛肉,天已蒙蒙亮了。朱元璋仰脸对天道:“能再黑一会儿,等我把锅送回去就好了!”天果然又黑了下来,直到朱元璋送还了锅,天才亮。因此,直到现在五更头天要黑一阵子才亮。
    吃了牛,如何向东家交代呢?朱元璋把牛骨头、牛蹄、牛皮等埋在山脚下,留条牛尾巴露在地面上。东家发现少了条牛,便责问朱元璋,朱元璋说:“老牛钻到地下去了。”东家骂道:  “一派胡言,老牛怎会钻到地下去?带我去看看。”于是,朱元璋带东家到埋牛的地方,他一拽露在地面上的牛尾巴,果然从地下传来牛的叫声“哞——!”吓得东家拔腿就跑。这就是“地牝牛”的来历;因此,朱元璋也让东家辞掉了。

歪井和临水酒
   
   朱元璋被东家赶出来后,他也不敢回姐姐家,就在临水集街头讨饭;没处住,他就到庙檐下过一夜。有一次,朱元璋生病了,发高烧,躺在离西大寺不远的一口石井旁睡到半夜,朱元璋口渴得难忍,又走不动,井内有水却又喝不到嘴。便说:“这井要能歪过来,让我喝口水就好了!”果然,井歪了,朱元璋伸头下井喝了个痛快。从此,这口井一直歪着,井里的水酿酒,酒味醇厚,异香扑鼻,与众不同。这就是后来远近闻名的“临水大曲”。

泥菩萨下位
   
   西大寺的老和尚见朱元璋可怜,又生得壮实,便收他进庙当了小和尚。当小和尚就得挑水、扫地、烧饭、打扫神台……等。其中打扫神台最麻烦,天天要五更起床清扫,神台上菩萨多,又不能象扫地那样将椅凳搬到一边去,打扫起来十分困难。老和尚对神台的检查又严,稍不干净便遭训斥,谁也不愿干。朱元璋是新来的,师兄们便把这些重活都推给了他。
    朱元璋每天四更起床,五更开始打扫神台,直干得汗流浃背,往往到大天亮还未清扫完毕,老和尚很不满意,朱元璋急得实在没有办法。一天,他对神台上的菩萨们说:“大菩萨、小菩萨,你们能不能离离位,到院子里站一会。让我打扫干净再来坐,行不行?”他刚说完,神台上的大小菩萨果然都一个个离位走下神台,去到院中等待。等朱元璋打扫完神台,菩萨们又各自归位而坐。这样一来,活做得快多了,也轻松多了。
    不料,这件事叫师兄们发现了,禀告了师父,老和尚不信。一天,老和尚早起偷看,见状大惊,对朱元璋训斥道;“叫你打扫神台,你怎么能随便搬动神象?”朱元璋回答道:“不是我搬的,都是他们自己走出来的!”老和尚一怒之下,便把朱元璋打发出寺。至于朱元璋又到皇觉寺去当和尚,那都是以后的事了。

贩酸梅
   
   离了西大寺,朱元璋又到临水集西南的马家寨,去帮马员外扛长工。这时朱元璋已长成了小伙子,高大结实,被马员外的女儿看中拉。这位马小姐是个秃头、大脚,长得很丑,所以迟迟嫁不了人。但她对朱元璋很好,二人暗中来往,却被马员外发现,因而将朱元璋赶出了马家寨,就在他走投无路时遇见了刘伯温。
刘伯温是浙江青田人,其上通天文,下知地理,熟读兵书,一心想干一番大事业;因此,他浪迹江湖寻找“真命天子”。这一天,刘伯温过河朝临水集来,其在沙滩上见一人正躺着睡觉,这就是被赶出来的朱元璋。只见他头枕扁担,平摊两臂,叉开双脚睡得正香,恰好组成一个“天”字。刘伯温心中不觉一动,正待上前询问,只见他侧过身子,脚一钩,头一低,又睡着了。刘伯温一看大惊,这不是个“子”字吗?连在一齐岂不就是“天子”吗?此人必有来历。于是,刘伯温便上前推醒朱元璋;从此,刘伯温便留在朱元璋身边为他出谋献策。
当时,沿淮一带正流行瘟病,多少人淌酸水死去。刘伯温懂得点医道偏方,知道酸梅可解瘟病,便对朱元璋说:“要夺天下,必得有人,要想有人,必得人心。现在这一带瘟病流行,你不如贩酸梅来与民解病。”贩酸梅得有钱,朱元璋只得又去求马小姐。马小姐二话没说就将自己攒的私房钱统统交给了他,朱元璋很是感激。等他当了皇帝,便派人来接马小姐去做正宫娘娘。马小姐听说朱元璋来接,高兴地跑进后厅去告诉父母,不料被门槛拌了一跤,这一跤跌得好,她头上秃疙瘩栽掉变成了一个银盆,现出了满头青丝,原来是“真人不露象”!只是那双大脚变不小。于是刘伯温出面园场说:“娘娘脚大江山稳,一脚踩定十三省。”当然,这些都是后话。
    朱元璋得到钱后,就请了几个人推车到阜阳西马陈集去贩了几趟酸梅来,在卖酸梅时,有钱收钱,无钱奉送。说也奇怪,凡吃过酸梅的人,瘟病都很快就好起来。大家十分感激朱元璋,称他是“救命恩人”,再加上刘伯温在一旁鼓吹,人们对朱元璋更加信服,后来这一带不少人都跟朱元璋去打天下了。

送鹅毛
   
   朱元璋在临水落难时,还认过一个干娘。这干娘对朱元璋很好,经常给些吃喝接济他,他也时常帮干娘挑水、放鹅。
朱元璋登极后不忘旧情,先接来了马小姐做正宫娘娘,又派人接干娘进京享福。当钦差大臣来接时,干娘觉得空着手进京去见干儿子不好,但家中又无什么值钱的东西,只得逮了一只又肥又大的白鹅带上。穿州过府,高接远送,都忙着侍候“皇太后”,竟把那只大白鹅忘了。一行人来到京城对岸的长江渡口登上渡船时,这只鹅又渴又饿,千里旱路不见水,一下子见到长江水,便不顾一切地挣断绳索,飞向江中。干娘一见急忙伸手去捉,结果只抓到几根鹅毛在手里。干娘来到皇宫,朱元璋和马娘娘亲自出来迎接,当干娘拿着几根鹅毛向朱元璋述说缘由后,朱元璋双手接过鹅毛,激动地说:“老娘进京看儿,千里送来鹅毛,礼物虽轻,但情意重千斤!”这就是至今人们还常说的:‘千里送鹅毛——礼轻情意重。”
 

(作者:安徽霍邱县文化局干部)


本文发表于《东方龙》19908月第7


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Re: 朱元璋在临水的传说(民间故事) (分数: 1)
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