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 会馆民俗: 试论黔东南苗族刺绣艺术



试论黔东南苗族刺绣艺术 

作者:杨文斌 

贵州省黔东南是苗族集聚地区,她们的刺绣艺术有自己的独特风格和特点。千百年来,苗族人民在生活中就很注重刺绣艺术,而且应用很广,如男女老少的各种服饰、床上用品等,都有精湛的艺术品。这些刺绣艺术反映了苗族人民对生活的向往和对幸福的追求,记录了苗族人民光辉的历程,它是苗族历史文化宝库中的一朵鲜花。 
一、刺绣艺术的发展 
从雷山西江和榕江新华的苗族服饰看,最早的衣袖片是蜡染,苗族称“透篙”;后由于经济文化的发展才进入“单色绣”和“多色绣”。在绣的种类中,是先有平绣,后有盘线、盘带、缩带、绕线、贴花等。看来苗族刺绣是从简单到复杂、从易到难、从粗到细、从低档到高档、从单色到多色的变化过程。现在苗族妇女几乎人人都会刺绣,不会刺绣的妇女则认为不聪灵。妇女们用刺绣来装饰自己的头帕、衣裙、裤、胸围、围腰、手龙套、脚龙套、鞋、鞋垫、禙带等等。 
二、刺绣艺术的内涵,表现手法和审美观 
苗族刺绣除了用来装饰自己外,更主要的是通过刺绣来展现苗族姑娘的聪明才智和内在美。在重大的节日里,姑娘着盛装跳芦笙时,领头的姑娘必须是大家公认的“人才美”和“盛装美”,两者缺一不可。那么,苗族刺绣艺术可分为四个特点。 
(一)信仰神物 
在苗族妇女看来,绣什么有什么作用是首位;然后才考虑设色,这与她们的功利分不开的。如:儿童的绣帽多为狗帽,绣帽的图案有龙、虎、蛙、花等,但绝不会绣豹或做豹帽。因为狗易带,吃食不刁嘴;而豹太刁嘴、太难带。力平六合在跳芦笙时,必须有一把图案威武的绣方伞来保护后生们的安全。从榕江月亮山一带的苗族绣一件头象征是龙头,身象蛇的四条躯鬼绣衣,在跳芦笙前举行摔跤比赛,胜者才能有资格穿它躯鬼。上述为例说明:苗族刺绣的内涵主要是以信仰神物为主。 
(二)富于想象,突出重点的表现手法 
苗族刺绣艺术是与苗族民间文学有着密切联系。她们在刺绣图案里,常以苗族传说的天鸟、角龙、螺蛳龙、飞龙、鸟龙、脚龙、人石龙、双头龙、双身龙、骨龙、花骨龙、鸡龙、卷龙等为刺绣对象,装饰在盛装上,很富于想象。为了突出其重点,不受实际物象约束,如绣南瓜和叶子,是把瓜绣在叶子上,叶在瓜之下,因为南瓜是主要表现对象,叶子是陪衬物,而不受叶子在南瓜之上的实际约束。月亮山的苗族绣的龙,为使变得活泼可爱,绣一朵花表示龙的头,这种大胆的想象和夸张手法,是苗族妇女对生活美的感受的结果。 
(三)抽象与写实交叉运用 
在苗族较早的绣品中,很难找到一张写实的绣片,一般都是抽象与写实相结合。如绣一只鸟,鸟的头和身是鸟外,鸟尾一般有个园圈似花似藤。麻江县绕家头帕绣花,一眼看上去,是一组组的花和叶的组合;再细看之,花里还有各种鸟、龙、鱼、虫等。由此看出,抽象与写实的交叉运用,又是苗族刺绣中的重要表现手法。 
(四)独特的审美观念 
怎样利用刺绣艺术来美化自己的生活,表达自己的内在情感,苗族妇女是有自己的审美标准的,一张好的绣品,必须具备:A、好的内容和耐人寻味,所说的内容是吉祥物和日常生活中的花鸟虫等;耐人寻味是绣品里的东西尽量多和相互之间的联系。B、有动感为好,绣的鸟和龙,鸟龙在飞时形成的各种交叉不齐的线条为佳,若呆呆的鸟和龙在绣品里则为次品。C、绣满为好,若不绣满则认为不耐看。D、色彩变化合理鲜艳为好,一件好的盛装不但比图案,还要比吸引力,而吸引力首先在于绣品中的颜色鲜艳程度。姑娘设计一套盛装总想把它绣得富丽堂煌,所以一般都采用原色。由于各地区苗族环境上的差异,清水江畔一般喜用红色和紫色,高山、崇林的山寨多用绿色和红色。E、针角齐的为好,在刺绣中,针角好坏,将检验一个人心灵手巧的尺寸,是不可忽视的。所以,姑娘一般七、八岁就开始学绣花,到十七、八岁就变得熟能生巧了。 
三、刺绣艺术的种类 
刺绣苗语称“阿轰”的刺绣又分为半绣、盘线绣、盘带绣、缩带绣、缩宝绣、绕线绣、破线绣、贴花和挑花,这些绣种有单种绣和各种混绣相结合。 
(一)平绣苗语称“义”,表现形象僻,色彩变化多样,是较普遍的一种绣。 
(二)盘带绣苗语称“斗舍”,先用八、九根线编成扁带子,然后根据图案盘上绽好,往往一根带子就盘成一个图案,一般色彩变化不多,只是一二种中绿或深绿色,看上去很稳定。 
(三)盘线绣苗语称“又舍”,用绣针将线盘成一个个小园圈固定在图案上,这种绣工精细,讲究针角。由于它是以线盘成带子来表现形象,刻画细部受到限制,因而每盘成一个形象,就得把所描绘的对象用一两根带来高度概括。 
(四)辩带绣苗语称“翁舍”,先编成带子,然后用双母子甲将带子叠成双层带(一小段一小段地折叠)绽在图案上。缩带绣稳重、厚沉、大方、耐看、立体感很强,在世界绣种上只有苗族才有,它是苗族绣种中最好之一。 
(五)缩宝绣苗语称“翁宝”,用五六根线编成园型带,然后将园带一个结一个依次绽上。缩宝绣是以色块来相互衬托的,故而色彩对比强烈,富有吸引力。 
(六)绕线绣,把线绕在绣针上再绽在图案里,各种绕向千姿百态,是善于表现形象细部复杂线条交叉,设色变化无穷。 
(七)破线绣苗语称“巴叉义”,将线分成若干细线,用它角水渗润晒干再绣。破线绣平面光滑整齐,针角极细,工艺讲究,是苗族刺绣的极高水平。 
(八)贴花苗语称“多偏”,利用各种色布贴在布上,再镶上金边,设色大胆,极为富丽。 
(九)挑花苗语称“西干仙”,在布上数布格,用针线来回挑满图案。挑花善干夸张、变形、抽象地表现各种动植物图案,在苗族常见的几何型图案中都少不了挑花。 
四、苗族刺绣的开发利用 
苗族刺绣中,绣种花样最多,其可贵的是保留了我们中华民族很多传统绣法,是我国民间宝库的一朵鲜花,引起了同内外专家学者的关注。苗族把刺绣水平高低看成是衡量一个姑娘聪明程度的尺子,因而苗族姑娘从小就得专心刺绣,一般至少能掌握一、二种刺绣技法,她们绣的质量不仅高,而且速度快,尤其是台江施洞和力平龙额的苗族妇女们刺绣速度之快、质量之优是一般人无法比试的。 
这几年很多人都在准备开发这个项目,为何迟迟未见成效?原因有三:一是刺品价格昂贵,一般人买不起;一是技术设计管理配套不齐,只限于做老装卖,新的日常生活用的绣品只限于小色,而人们穿的衣裙、家庭绣品无人材设计;三是投资少,试制一件日常生活的绣品就花一两百元,若销不了造成浪费,苦于无入投资开发。 
综上所述,为开发苗族刺绣艺术,必须先解决投资和人材的配套,因开发性项目不是今天生产明天见效,它是经过一段时间才看得出经济效益,有投资后就要有专业的服装设汁人才和工艺人才及试验工厂,三者缺一不可。其次,是把群众喜欢的苗族图案与其他民族图案的刺绣和现代人的日常生活结合起来,为沙发靠、坐垫、门帘、服装等,是完全可以发挥其作用的。 

(作者:贵州省资源开发总公司黔东南州公司美工师) 
本文发表于《东方龙》1989年11月第四期


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