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 会馆民俗: 野外婚礼



野外婚礼 

作者:徐佩仰
 

游猎在大兴安岭额尔古纳河畔的鄂温克人,他们的婚姻习俗具有本民族的特色。 
订婚时,过去要由媒人带一瓶酒到女方家,先说明来意,然后拿出酒来给女方父亲敬酒;女方父亲如喝酒,亲事就算成了;反之,就没订成。一般来说,父母都会同意的,但开始要假装不喝酒,要等媒人多费一些口舌,把男方的品德、长相和狩猎技能介绍一番,觉得满意了再喝酒。喝酒时,按习惯要把女方家族中所有的人请来参加,同时商定在两氏族之间选—地点做为汇聚的地方,并由女方父亲做出婚姻的决定。 
订婚后,男方照例要赠送一些驯鹿、灰鼠皮和酒作为彩礼。到要结婚时,男方“乌力楞”(家庭公社),不管离女方多远,都要迁移到与女方靠近的地方;同时,由男方“乌力楞”的人在通向女方道路的两旁,把森林的皮刮掉一些作为记号,给新郎开道。 
结婚这天,男方的父母和“乌力楞”,所有的人都要陪送新郎到女方家去度初夜,在往女方家的路上,还要排成一定的队形,最前头的是长者,其后是新郎,再后是父母和“乌力楞”的人们,最后是牵驯鹿的人。女方也以同样的队形来前迎接,新郎新娘相遇后,互相拥抱接吻,新娘将一个刻有驯鹿的头像,象征吉祥和幸福的“阿勒马勒”(桦皮盒)送给男方,男方则送给女方一方手帕作为交换的礼物。接着,新郎新娘从男方的驯鹿中选两只最好的各牵一只绕“撮罗子”(住房)走三圈,最后大家进“撮罗子”吃喜酒直至夜晚酒宴结束,举行婚礼。 
婚礼不是在室内,而是在室外举行,在清理过的河滩谷地上燃起一堆他们称为“欢乐之火”的篝火。举行婚礼时,人们簇拥着—对新人到篝火边,并以火为中心围成—个圆圈,由主持婚礼的长者宣布婚礼开始,先由他用桦皮杯满斟两杯酒,交由新郎新娘泼在火里,表示对火的献祭;接着再按次斟酒,新人互相拥抱接吻,手挽手和所有参加婚礼的男女老少拉成—个大圆圈跳舞唱歌,大家在歌舞中纵情欢乐,兴尽而归。 


本文发表于《东方龙》1991年3月总第8期


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2010-01-26 15:40:14
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