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 会馆民俗: 傣家竹楼



傣家竹楼 

作者:王琨琳
 

大凡到过西双版纳或想往西双版纳的人们,那一丛丛苍翠的凤尾竹后悠雅耸立的傣家竹楼永远有着浓烈的吸引力。可不是,陕北窗棂如画的窑洞、贵州屋脊似鳞的石板寨、散发着草原剽悍神风的蒙古包……民间有多少数不清的建筑奇葩,凝集着劳动人民的才智,以其本土本地独具的适应性;超凡脱俗的艺术美给人民生息的基点,给大自然以人的烙印,竹楼正是据此而形成了傣家不可分割的标志。 
相传,当年诸葛亮在西双版纳取下自己的帽子交给当地人,指教他们以孔明帽为形状结芦为屋、安属乐业。确实,傣家竹楼的屋顶颇象一顶顶“凸”字形的巨帽,也许传闻相反是缘此而来,只要你留意当地的乡土民情,不难看出,竹楼是傣家在西双版纳这块别具一格的乐土上世代相袭而成的,独具一格的建筑艺术。 
西双版纳雨季漫长,潮湿多雾。竹楼以一根根结实的木柱为屋脚,高高地立在四围叠翠的平坝上,屋底下人可直立而行,如此透空,屋内自是十分干爽。说是竹楼,其实结构部分基本是上好的木材,一梁一柱,工巧榫接,也只有林海茫茫的西双版纳有此材源,也只有得茫茫林海之灵气的傣家能成比结构。屋底为厚实的木板,上垫平滑的竹席,四周矮墙仅一米左右,多透空处,屋顶却高得别出心裁,大坡度上紧扣一片片细致小巧的陶片,任是连阴细雨也能很快流走,而不致滴漏屋内。拔高的空间又使屋内凉爽宜人,酷热中也能让你享受到大自然的空调。屋内、客厅、阳台、居室、火塘,布局井井有序。当你踏着吱吱轻唱的木梯,由主人迎上客厅,依梯而坐,小丫哨会轻轻启开火塘边一块方形的地板,由暗设的储柴箱中取出干柴,加在余碳尤在的三角架上悠悠一吹,火苗即起,不一会儿清香四溢的大叶茶就送到你手中。此时此地,此茶轻含口中,你不觉得这建筑的每一布局都是傣家生活经历的结晶?都是民间艺术的再现? 
走出屋来,保准你一步三回头。高桃的屋脚、高昂的屋脊,稳实得象不惧艰辛的寨民,更飘溢着傣家少女那种轻盈、柔美的风姿。只有它能扎根于温润的版纳,只有它能与永远绿得醉人的山水相配。 
近年来,随着人民生活水平的提高,在傣乡也隅见几处“时髦”的新房,清一色的砖瓦结构,除底层高一些外,与汉族坝区农家的建筑相差无几,总觉得与这块涂满传奇色彩的土地极不相配,不但不能给人现代的气息,相反让人产生一种“落后”的遗憾。可见,并不是现代材料的堆砌就能促成文明的进步,形成现代的标志。 
民族文化具有一脉相袭的民族传统,是有源远流长的历史,只有把握其精髓,在承继传统的基础上,随着时代的进程不断开掘、弘扬,才能形成自有民族特色的现代文化,自立于现代世界文明之林。 
愿民风在发展中永存。 

(作者:云南省武警总队医院政委) 
本文发表于《东方龙》1990年8月第7期


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2009-03-08 16:21:27
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