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 会馆民俗: 多彩的洪湖纸折扇



多彩的洪湖纸折扇 

作者:程康
 

美丽富饶的洪湖,位于长江之滨,是楚文化发源地之一。千百年来在这块美丽的渔米之乡上盛开着绚丽夺目的民间工艺之花,在国内外享有盛名。 一件精美的工艺品,能使人赏心悦目、爱不释手。洪湖纸折扇就有这样的魅力。它工艺精湛、典雅大方、携带方便,扇面或题写诗词或绘印山水、花卉和人物故事,既是实用品、又是工艺品,为陶冶人的情操、美化生活起了很重要的作用。 洪湖制扇业历史悠久、源远流长。明未清初,新堤镇(现洪湖市新堤办事处)就有了制扇行业。清顺治时期,洪湖纸折扇已行销华北、西北、陕西、山西一带。民间艺术与劳动者日常生活、民风民俗相联。它崇尚内在美,强化寓意象征,寄托吉祥、安宁之意。以祭奠而言,华北、西北、陕西、山西一带,每年7月15日的“中元节”,当地百姓专门购买洪湖的纸折扇焚烧化钱,祭奠亲友亡灵,这种民俗不仅在国内流行,在国外、东南亚也很盛行。 一个世纪前,新堤制扇作坊与杭州王星记扇庄有着密切的业务来往,一直为杭州王星记扇庄加工竹骨、扇胎。解放前新堤镇有120多家制扇作坊,大多数都集中在现在的钟家墩一带。其中“洪懋和”的纸折扇最闻名,有代表性的扇业老艺人名师郑明清(已故)、叶昌发老人(现八十岁),他们祖孙三代都从事扇业工艺技艺,湖北省授于他们“工艺名师巧匠”称号。 第一次国内革命战争时期,新堤制扇工人成立了“扇业工会”,后在大革命中遭到挫折。 解放后,由街道居委会把原有的制扇老工人组织起来进行生产,成立了“洪湖扇筷厂”;从此,洪湖制扇业就有了正式的组织形式,并不断发展壮大。 洪湖纸折扇工艺复杂,做工精细,每把扇子都有三十四道工艺,它把传统工艺和现代技术溶为一体,其花色品种之多,为全国同行之首。按工艺可分为生胎、熟胎、扇面三大类。纸折扇选用江南毛竹和优质纸作原料。要求竹胎、纸面能折叠,撒开呈半圆型,豪头散尾,典雅大方,携带方便。根据扇骨雕刻工艺的不同,可分为深雕(指扇骨上雕刻的图形成凹形)、浮雕(指扇骨上雕刻的图形形成凸形),给人以古朴奔放、刀法洒脱、造型稚拙、稳重之感。以扇骨色彩命名的有:白玉、黑漆、红金字、红金星、黑金星、反黄、油色、乌玉、槟榔、斑花等;以扇骨形状命名的有:如意图、九连环、风边铁牙、七根柴、九根葱等。在改革开放的年代里,他们生产的一种名为“国漆班花”的纸折扇骨,用“毛坝漆”作涂料光亮如镜,花纹自然连锁,生动精美、风格别具。“国漆班花”在国外被称为“豹花”,它不是画的、印的,而是艺人们用炉火精心地烤上去的,此项技术全国仅有。 发展至今,洪湖纸折扇行销二十多个国家和数十个大、中城市,内贸供不应求,外贸每届广交会上一抢而空。近几年来服务于农村市场和广告、旅游、宣传事业,收到了很好的社会效益和经济效益。1979年获荆州地区优质产品证书;1980年在全国纸折扇评比中,扇骨被评为第三名,花色被评为第一名。1982年和1986年连续两次获《湖北省优质产品证书》;1983年荣获中华人民共和国对外贸易出口产品优秀荣誉证书。 

(作者: 湖北省洪湖市群众艺术馆中国文物学会会馆专业委员会理事) 

本文发表于《东方龙》1989年4月第2期(总第2期)


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2008-11-05 16:23:37
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