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 会馆民俗: 四川平武白马藏人的节日



                                                 四川平武白马藏人的节日 
作者:周晓钟
 

一、新年 
白马藏人最隆重的节日是夏历新年。从腊月底到正月中,白马藏人的村寨都沉浸在节日的欢乐中。节日活动主要有打秋千,跳圆圆舞,抢新水,火把节等。 
腊月二十五到二十八日,是扎秋千的日子。秋千是白马藏人新年必备的娱乐用具,每年这几天,男人们就进深山里去割那种适合作秋千的粗藤子,烤制成藤圈和藤索。用几根原木搭成高高的架,每一寨都要搭好几座。寨坝旁有全寨共搭的、房前屋后及一些公共地方有各家自搭的或几家伙搭的。小孩以及青中年人都爱打秋千,多是好手,常常两人一起,三荡两荡就飞上屋脊高。 
抢新水。白马藏人认为:一年四季,河里的水在世界上往复循环,正月初一第一声鸡叫时刻流过汲水码头的水是最洁净,因而也是最神圣吉祥的,所以叫“新水”。白马人用新水祭祀,沭浴净身,烧茶喝。除夕夜,寨坝里升起了篝火,全寨人跳圆圆舞欢闹通宵不得睡觉,否则第二年庄稼要倒。初一凌晨,第一声鸡叫,各家在门前点燃一堆祭火祭神,求年内打猎有好运气。与此同时,精干的姑娘小伙子齐奔向汲水码头,抢鸡叫后的第一桶新水。白马藏人认为第一桶新水最重要,谁家抢到就会有一年的好运气。 
正月初三,是白马藏人统一的结婚日子,从前,白马藏人都在这个日子结亲。 
初五初六,是跳曹盖的日子。“曹盖”是一种象貌凶恶的面具,戴上这种面具,反穿羊皮袄装扮成凶神模样的人也叫曹盖,曹盖通常有五六个。初五下午,寨坝里搭成经棚请白该(神职人员)念经,宰羊祭祀。晚上,全寨男女老少在寨坝里围着篝火跳圆圆舞到天亮。 
第二天,由曹盖带领全寨人进行一整天驱邪祭祀神山活动,使整个新年的欢乐达到高潮。 
火把节:十五晚上,寨坝里燃起篝火,由当年生肖属象相同的最年长的男人首先燃起火把,开始绕房前屋后小步跑,全寨男女老少依次从前一人手中点燃火把跑成长长的队伍;最后队伍跑出寨外,在冬天空旷的田地里蜿蜒盘屈成蛇形,游遍所有的较平展或连片的土地。意为驱除灾害,祈取丰收。若两寨相邻,往往向中间靠拢,两队火把互相穿插,最后旋成一个大圈,两寨人各出选手,在圈中对歌、摔跤到兴尽方休。十五以后,新年欢庆就告结束,要开始生产劳动了。 
二、开春节 
二月初一,是白马藏人的开春节。这天寨子要请白该念经,宰羊祭汜神山,表示开春了。这天晚上,家家户户都带上油肉锅碗到寨后的山上去野餐露宿,进行春游活动。祭祀后的羊肉在大锅里煮熟,由全察人分享。初二下午回寨,家家都要套上犏牛耕一犁地,表示开春破土。 
三、七月十五 
七月十五,是白马人除新年外的最重要节日。这一天,各家要杀鸡在偻上神台祭祀,相互请客喝酒吃饭,全寨人跳圆圆舞,唱七月十五的歌子,表示庆祝丰收。这天,男女老少都要穿白衣服,缠白色裹腿,不能穿青黑或花色衣服,表示是夏天的节日。白马藏族人以夏历六七月为夏。 
四、五月十五 
五月十五是白马藏人重要的祭祀日,这天各寨都要宰杀老牛祭祀神山,祈取牛羊兴旺,五谷丰登,人畜安康。牛钱由各户出,牛肉大家分。 
五、四月二十 
四月二十,是白马人的春祭日,这天要以寨为单位宰羊敬山神,请白该念经书写符咒牌;然后,由几个男人同白该一起带着符咒牌到寨子四周最高的山顶上各扎一个草木人。草木人手持刀、矛、弓箭和符咒牌,表示守卫村寨的人畜和庄稼,抵卸风雪雷雨等灾害。扎草人由三四家人具体负责,年年轮转。 
六、清明歌会 
清明歌会是木座山寨的节日。1982年,由木座藏族乡政府首倡,平武县宣传、统战、工青妇等部门积极支持,清明节这天在木座山寨举办了歌会。远近各寨的白马藏人都赶来参加,商贩也来凑热闹。歌会上由白马藏人表演传统和现代的歌舞,表演跳曹盖等传统的民俗节目,晚上全寨人围着篝火跳圆圆舞通宵。以后每年清明都举办这样的歌会,延续至今,形成了较大规模的节日活动。 


(作者:四川省平武县文化馆馆长中国太平洋历史学会民间文化艺术分会理事) 
发表于《东方龙》1990年4月第二期(总第6期)


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贴出者为 Anonymous    贴出时间为 2008-09-30 18:35:44
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